In addition, the ICC and 95% CI were calculated. For Viewbox, the lower border of the 95% CI of SN to GoGn was below .9. Concurrent validity refers to the extent to which the test scores correspond to already established or accepted performance, known as criterion. Results: Factor analysis confirmed 3 dimensions of CIPN: sensory, motor, and autonomic. Subject: Concurrent validity and reliability of cephalometric analysis using smartphone apps and computer software, (Optional message may have a maximum of 1000 characters.). Likewise, recently introduced apps (ie, software applications designed to run on smartphones and tablets),3  facilitate automatic calculation of cephalometric measurements following hand-operated landmark identification. Statistical analyses were performed with IBM SPSS Statistics 23 (SPSS, Chicago, Ill). Concurrent validity of classifications . The first two authors contributed equally to this work. +y5:�� Search form. icon-arrow-top icon-arrow-top. The intermittent lines indicate the cutoff for clinically relevant differences, that is, >2° for angular and >2 mm for linear measurements. Paired t-test showed that there was a significant difference between sessions when measuring U1 to NA with Viewbox and when measuring ANB, L1 to NB and the interincisal angle with CephNinja (Table 2). Concurrent validity of OneCeph and CephNinja apps (ie, the degree to which an outcome measure measures the construct it purports to measure) was estimated by comparing the first session measurements of each app to the reference standard (ie, Viewbox) using repeated-measures analysis of variance. We theorize that all four items reflect the idea of self esteem (this is why I labeled the top part of the figure Theory). The test scores are truly useful if they can provide a basis for precise prediction of some criteria. Jeromy Anglim. Concurrent validity. When measuring U1 to NA (mm) with OneCeph and when measuring L1 to NB (mm) with either OneCeph or CephNinja, measurements were systematically lower compared with those obtained from Viewbox. Criterion-related validity is concerned with the relationship between individuals’ performance on two measures tapping the same construct. Validity and reliability of the BOT2 have been examined in healthy children [9,14,15] but never in CP [16]. This video demonstrates how to conduct and interpret a Discriminant Analysis (Discriminant Function Analysis) in SPSS including a review of the assumptions. Are mobile apps a leaky tap in the enterprise? App engineers need to optimize the ease of use of cephalometric analysis apps operating on smartphones, especially to simplify landmark relocation. Sphericity was checked using Mauchly's test. 0000008610 00000 n Item-item questionnaire that significantly correlated with total score indicates that the items are valid. 925 16 In total, lateral cephalograms of 20 males and 30 females (mean age, 19.1 years; SD, 11.7) were traced. Q��Pf%�����s��[�O�����Yd�L. It refers to the extent to which the results of a particular test … 0000003895 00000 n Mobile health applications, in the absence of an authentic regulation, does the usability score correlate with a better medical reliability? The limited battery life and memory space of mobile devices, computer viruses including spyware, data leakage,37  as well as lack of availability of apps on smartphones with different operating systems may further complicate the application of mobile apps in everyday practice. To test for factor or internal validity of a questionnaire in SPSS use factor analysis (under data reduction menu). This correlation was not significant (p > 0.05). The lower border of the 95% CI of SN to GoGn was below .7 and those of U1 to NA (mm) and L1 to NB (mm) were below .9. 85. Statistics, Research, & SPSS: The Basics SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) is a software program that makes the calculation and presentation of statistics relatively easy. Table 1 shows the means and standard deviations (SD) of all cephalometric measurements obtained with Viewbox and apps at both sessions. A clinically relevant difference was claimed when the angles and distances measured by the apps differed by >2° or >2 mm, respectively.22,23. Pearson correlational analysis was used to establish concurrent validity. For CephNinja, none of the values were below .9. Given the increasing exposure of young generations to technology and the widespread use of dentistry-related mobile apps by students, practitioners, and patients to obtain information, apps can supplement traditional teaching methods as part of the TEL approach. Dataset. %PDF-1.4 %���� Cite. One is to correlate the scores between two assessment tools or tools’ sub-domains that are considered to measure the same construct. The ICC of the comparison between OneCeph and Viewbox ranged from .903 to .983 (Table 2). Corresponding author: Dr Christos Livas, Department of Orthodontics, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), University of Amsterdam and VU University Amsterdam, Gustav Mahlerlaan 3004, 1081 LA, Amsterdam, the Netherlands (e-mail: Search for other works by this author on: 2014 JCO study of orthodontic diagnosis and treatment procedures, part 1: results and trends, Mobile devices and apps for health care professionals: uses and benefits, A systematic review of the research evidence for the benefits of teledentistry, Technology-Enhanced Learning. 0000003364 00000 n 0000005904 00000 n Materials and Methods BOT2-CF Two versions of the BOT were assessed: the BOT2-CF and the BOT2-SF. Convergent validity, a parameter often used in sociology, psychology, and other behavioral sciences, refers to the degree to which two measures of constructs that theoretically should be related, are in fact related. xref Patient identifiers (ie, name, age, gender, and date of examination) were cropped out of the original lateral cephalograms to maintain patient privacy. In addition, the flexibility of the mobile platform enhances a more interactive and personalized education.33  In other words, residents and dental students can adjust learning to meet personals needs, revise when needed, deepen areas of special interest, and skip areas of prior knowledge. Exploring outliers showed that they were not related to one specific cephalogram/patient. 40.7k 22 22 gold badges 137 137 silver badges 241 241 bronze badges. trailer Concurrent validity focuses on the extent to which scores on a new measure are related to scores from a criterion measure administered at the same time, whereas predictive validity uses the scores from the new measure to predict performance on a criterion measure administered at a later time. In the figure below, we see four measures (each is an item on a scale) that all purport to reflect the construct of self esteem. Strictly looking at the number of app measurements below the acceptable cutoffs for research and clinical practice, OneCeph might be considered a slightly more valid alternative to Viewbox than CephNinja. Both can be determined using Pearson r. So, calculate Pearson r using SPSS. Pretreatment digital lateral cephalograms of 50 consecutive orthodontic patients (20 males, 30 females; mean age, 19.1 years; SD, 11.7) were traced twice using two apps (ie, CephNinja and OneCeph), with Viewbox used as the gold standard computer software program. doi: https://doi.org/10.2319/021919-124.1. Concurrent validity refers to the extent to which the test scores correspond to already established or accepted performance, known as criterion. Part 1: a randomised controlled trial, Teledentistry for screening new patient orthodontic referrals. Overall, both cephalometric analysis apps performed satisfactorily, suggesting the potential use of easy-to-reach digital technology to make cephalometrics more readily accessible. The scale also demonstrated good predictive validity in patients recovering from MI with individual items being related to mental and physical functioning at 3 months' follow-up, cardiac rehabilitation class attendance, and speed of return to work. We thus set out to assess concurrent validity and reliability of the BOT2 in CP children. 0000002342 00000 n This concurrent validity study comparing IRD measurements made with digital nylon calipers to those made with USI offers preliminary evidence to support the validity of using calipers in both males and females when measuring IRD above the umbilicus with the abdominal muscles both at rest and during contraction. 0000005940 00000 n Validity and reliability of the BOT2 have been examined in healthy children [9,14,15] but never in CP [16]. 925 0 obj <> endobj other measures of the same or similar constructs. This sometimes encourages researchers to first test for the concurrent validity of a new measurement procedure, before later testing it for predictive validity … The problem is that the benchmark test may have some inaccuracies and, if the new test shows a correlation, it merely shows that the new test contains the same problems. Test the validity of the questionnaire was conducted using Pearson Product Moment Correlations using SPSS. Further development of smartphone apps for cephalometrics may assist specialty training and interprofessional communication. At the time the study was conducted, the examiner had 15 years of clinical experience in orthodontics and more than 10 years of experience using Viewbox and has been previously calibrated.16–19  Prior to the study, a 3-hour training for each app was carried out to allow the examiner to master the tracing method. Christos Livas, Konstantina Delli, Frederik K. L. Spijkervet, Arjan Vissink, Pieter U. Dijkstra; Concurrent validity and reliability of cephalometric analysis using smartphone apps and computer software. ICCs were used to assess total and subscore (wheelchair setup, body setup, flight and landing) concurrent validity (TAI … Plots did not reveal systematic bias in any of the measurements (Figure 2), except for U1 to NA (mm) and L1 to NB (mm). Data analysis was performed using SPSS 24.0 software. Statistical analyses were performed with IBM SPSS Statistics 23 (SPSS, Chicago, Ill). 0000003588 00000 n Smartphone cephalometric analysis apps perform satisfactorily in terms of validity and reliability. Convergent validity states that tests having the same or similar constructs should be highly correlated. All 13 children with DS were asked to undergo FRT. A correlation of r = .35 was found between the predicted VO2 max scores from the Beep Test and the VO2 max scores measured during the treadmill test. The ICCs and/or lower border of the 95% CI of U1 to NB (mm) and L1 to NA (mm) were below .7 and of ANB as well as SN to GoGn were below .9. Concurrent validity Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS version 24.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA). The Brief IPQ showed good test–retest reliability and concurrent validity with relevant measures. To define the cephalometric variables, a total of 12 landmarks were digitized (Figure 1A). However, a difference of less than two units of measurement (millimeters or degree) is deemed to be within clinically acceptable limits.22,23, Multidisciplinary consultation using smartphone cephalometric analysis apps may be beneficial in distant rural areas with a high need for orthodontic and orthognathic surgery care and rare or totally unavailable specialized oral health services. Concurrent validity was determined by calculating correlations—using the Pearson’s correlation (r)—between the IPARAN score and related constructs from the following instruments: the Empowerment Questionnaire 2.0, the Family Functioning Questionnaire and the Parenting Stress Questionnaire. Their responses were coded and analysed using SPSS version 16 by determing their Cronbach alphas for the internal consistency and Pearson correlation for the concurrent validity. For OneCeph, ANB, SN to GoGn, U1 to NA, L1 to NB, and L1 to NB (mm) presented with ICC and/or lower border of the 95% CI below the accepted cutoffs (Table 3). On the bottom part of the figure (Observation) w… To gain sufficient power for the data analysis we obtained sample of 13 children with DS with 0.05 alpha level and 80% power to detect minimum reliability coefficient of 0.75. As the vast majority of smartphones are not equipped with a stylus, identification of landmarks was performed directly on the touchscreen by a finger to represent mainstream use. The criteria are measuring instruments that the test-makers previously evaluated. OneCeph is highly valid when compared with Viewbox as a gold standard, while CephNinja is the most reliable one. Data analysis was performed using SPSS 24.0 software. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the concurrent validity and reliability of cephalometric measurements generated by two popular, free apps, CephNinja (version 1.0, Naveen Madan, Bothell, Wash) and OneCeph (version beta 1.1, NXS, Hyderabad, Telangana, India), compared with Viewbox (Viewbox 4, dHAL Software, Kifissia, Greece) as the reference standard. Concurrent validity between the CBM and the other balance and mobility tests was assessed using the Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient (ρ) since the results of the 8-level balance scale (p < .001), errors during 3MTW (p < .001), and gait speed test (p < .05) were not normally distributed according to the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Concurrent validity of OneCeph and CephNinja apps (ie, the degree to which an outcome measure measures the construct it purports to measure) was estimated by comparing the first session measurements of each app to the reference standard (ie, Viewbox) using repeated-measures analysis of variance. The highest total score possible is 300. Test the Validity of Pearson Correlation Using SPSS http://spssforstatistics.com/test-the-validity-of-pearson-correlation-using-spss/ ). This type of validity is similar to predictive validity. %%EOF The second link includes a video on how to test these two types of validity in SPSS. Pretreatment digital lateral cephalograms of 50 consecutive orthodontic patients attending a private practice (Dental Clinics Zwolle, Zwolle, the Netherlands) between August and October 2017 were retrospectively collected for the purposes of the study. On the other hand, fewer CephNinja measurements indicated significant differences in comparison with Viewbox, with SN to GoGn and L1 to NB (mm) being significantly differently measured by either app. Construct validity, known-group validity, concurrent validity, and internal consistency reliability of the Korean version of the QLQ-CIPN20 were evaluated. Two methods are often applied to test convergent validity. Sphericity was checked using Mauchly’s test. Participant demographics between completers and noncompleters were evaluated using chi square or independent t tests. Seven angular and two linear measurements originating from the Steiner cephalometric analysis,20  the prevailing cephalometric analysis in orthodontic practices,2  all available in the analysis protocols of Viewbox and both apps, were selected for the tracing procedures, namely, the angles SNA, SNB, ANB, SN to GoGn, upper incisor to NA (U1 to NA), lower incisor to NB (L1 to NB), interincisal angle, and the linear distances of the most prominent points of the labial surfaces of the upper and lower incisors perpendicular to NA and NB, respectively (Figure 1B). http://www.theaudiopedia.com What is CONCURRENT VALIDITY? The sample size, extent of the repeated measurements, robustness of statistical methods, and masking of patient identifiers applied in this investigation are deemed more advantageous compared with similar research.12–14  As in the study of Goracci and Ferrari,12  the long experience in cephalometrics and on-screen digitization of the examiner who performed all tracings might have also contributed to the more favorable results, since it is well-recognized that the operator's experience in landmark identification affects cephalometric measurements.26,27  The selected cephalometric landmarks need to be considered when interpreting the results of such research. In addition, this discrepancy was larger for higher U1 to NA (mm) and L1 to NB (mm) measurements, as the linear trend shows (Figure 2). 0000003818 00000 n The free versions of the CephNinja and OneCeph15  apps were downloaded from the Google Play Store on March 30, 2018 (Google Inc, Mountain View, Calif) on a Samsung Galaxy S8 smartphone (Samsung Telecommunications, Suwon, South Korea). (A) Cephalometric landmarks and (B) Cephalometric measurements used in the study. © 2019 by The EH Angle Education and Research Foundation, Inc. Lu Liu, Qi Zhan, Jing Zhou, Qianyun Kuang, Xinyu Yan, Xiaoqi Zhang, Yue Shan, Wenli Lai, Hu Long, This site uses cookies. $\begingroup$ Also a brief point of terminology, to help you understand any material you might read on the topic: A question or statement in a questionnaire (but not a group of questions) is what is called an “item”. Concurrent validity refers to whether a test’s scores actually evaluate the test’s questions. All tracings were repeated again in random order in a second session, 2 weeks after the first one. Although such a decision might be initially considered a limitation, it was actually an asset of the study design. Part 2: GDP perception of the referral system, Mobile medical and health apps: state of the art, concerns, regulatory control and certification. By continuing to use our website, you are agreeing to, https://www.statista.com/topics/1002/mobile-app-usage/, https://www.zscaler.com/blogs/research/are-mobile-apps-leaky-tap-enterprise. Differences in cephalometric measurements: a comparison of digital versus hand-tracing methods, Dentists' opinions of an online orthodontic advice service, Teledentistry for screening new patient orthodontic referrals. �1�T��++��# Both convergent and concurrent validity are ways of assessing construct validity by examining the strength of the relationship between the scores from two different measurement procedures. All radiographs were obtained using the same radiographic unit (Kodak 9000, Carestream Health Inc, Rochester, NY) according to a standardized protocol. 0 Earlier research on the validity of smartphone cephalometric analysis apps operating on tablets and smartphones compared with manual and computerized cephalometric analysis has yielded contradictory results.12–14  Given the exponential growth of apps and the current lack of a systematic approach to evaluate the validity and reliability of mobile apps,10  continuous monitoring of the measurement properties of apps is needed. FRT was performed by using a measuring tape placed on the wall, parallel to … Convergent validity states that tests having the same or similar constructs should be highly correlated. Analysis, were performed with IBM SPSS Statistics 23 ( SPSS, Chicago, Ill ) ]. And angular cephalometric measurements Obtained by CephNinja and OneCeph apps activities was negatively associated emotion. 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